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Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD): Degenerative condition of the retina which is characterized by a progressive destruction of the macula. It affects people after the age of 50 and causes a progressive loss of central vision, whereas peripheral vision is maintained.

Amblyopia: Pronounced decrease in visual acuity without any organic lesions evident on the eye. Most often beginning during young childhood, it is resultant of a lack of brain stimulation by the affected eye.
Synonym: lazy eye.

Ametropia: Abnormality in optical refraction (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) resulting in the inability to focus images on the retina. It can be compensated by an optical correction with glasses or lenses.

Anterior chamber: Aqueous humor-filled space between the iris and the cornea.

Aqueous humor: Transparent fluid occupying the space between the cornea and the crystalline lens. Its continuous renewal maintains the intraocular pressure. It also plays a role in keeping the eyeball inflated.

Astigmatism: Optical defect generally resulting from an irregular curvature of the cornea, and more rarely of the crystalline lens or the whole eyeball. The images formed on the retina are distorted.